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What is Capital?

What is Capital

Capital is a term that is frequently used in economics, finance, and business. It is a critical element in the creation and growth of businesses, as well as in the management of finances. We will take a closer look at what capital is, its types, and its importance in business and finance.

What is Capital?

Capital is a term used to describe financial assets or resources that are invested in a business or used to produce goods or services. It can also refer to the physical assets of a company, such as buildings, equipment, and inventory. Essentially, capital is anything that can be used to create or generate income.

There are two main types of capital: Financial capital and Physical capital. Financial capital refers to money, stocks, bonds, and other financial instruments that can be used to invest in a business or organization. Physical capital, on the other hand, refers to tangible assets such as machinery, buildings, and other physical resources that can be used in the production of goods or services.

Why is Capital Important?

Capital is essential in business and finance because it is the foundation upon which businesses are built. Without capital, businesses cannot be established, expanded, or maintained. Capital provides the funds necessary to purchase equipment, hire employees, and invest in research and development. In short, capital is what enables businesses to grow and thrive.

Capital also plays a critical role in the economy as a whole. It is a key driver of economic growth and job creation. When businesses have access to capital, they can expand their operations, hire more employees, and invest in new technologies. This, in turn, leads to increased economic activity and higher standards of living for individuals and communities.

Types of Capital

As mentioned earlier, there are two main types of capital: financial and physical. Let’s take a closer look at each type.

Financial Capital

Financial capital refers to money and other financial assets that can be used to invest in a business or organization. Some examples of financial capital include:


Equity refers to ownership in a company. When investors buy stocks in a company, they are buying a share of the company’s ownership. This type of investment is known as equity financing.


Debt refers to money that is borrowed by a company or organization. This can include loans from banks or other financial institutions, as well as bonds issued to investors. This type of financing is known as debt financing.

Retained Earnings

Retained earnings are profits that are reinvested back into a company. This is a form of self-financing that allows companies to grow without taking on debt or issuing equity.

Physical Capital

Physical capital refers to the tangible assets that a company uses to produce goods or services. Some examples of physical capital include:

Machinery and Equipment

This includes any equipment or machinery used in the production of goods or services. This can include everything from manufacturing equipment to office computers and software.

Buildings and Infrastructure

Buildings and infrastructure include any physical structures or facilities used by a company. This can include factories, warehouses, offices, and other types of buildings.


Inventory refers to the goods or products that a company has on hand to sell. This can include raw materials, work in progress, and finished products.

Cost of Acquiring Capital

One of the key factors that businesses need to consider when it comes to capital is the cost of acquiring it. Financial capital, in particular, can be expensive to obtain, especially if a company is seeking external funding through loans or equity financing. However, the cost of capital needs to be weighed against the potential benefits of investing in the business. By investing in the right type of capital, businesses can increase their productivity, reduce costs, and improve their overall competitiveness in the marketplace.

Sources of Capital

There are many sources of capital available to businesses, and the right source will depend on a variety of factors including the size of the business, the stage of development, and the amount of capital required. By carefully evaluating the available options and choosing the right source of capital, businesses can increase their chances of success and achieve their growth and expansion goals. Below is a list of some of the sources.

  • Equity Financing: This is when businesses raise capital by selling ownership shares in the company to investors. This can be done through initial public offerings (IPOs) or private placements. Equity financing is typically used by businesses that are just starting out, or by those looking to raise significant amounts of capital.
  • Debt Financing: This is when businesses raise capital by borrowing money from banks, financial institutions, or other lenders. Debt financing can be secured or unsecured and typically involves the repayment of the principal amount plus interest over a set period of time. Debt financing is often used by businesses to finance specific projects or to cover short-term expenses.
  • Self-Financing: This is when businesses use their own resources to fund their operations or growth. This can include reinvesting profits back into the business or using personal savings to finance startup costs. Self-financing can be a good option for businesses that are just starting out, as it allows them to retain control over the business and avoid taking on debt or giving up equity.
  • Crowdfunding: This is when businesses raise capital by soliciting small investments from a large number of individuals through online platforms. Crowdfunding can be an effective way for businesses to raise capital quickly, but it can also be risky as there is no guarantee that the business will be successful.
  • Grants and Subsidies: This is when businesses receive funding from government agencies or other organizations for specific projects or purposes. Grants and subsidies can be a good source of capital for businesses that are engaged in research and development or that are working to address specific social or environmental issues.
  • Angel Investors: These are typically wealthy individuals who invest in early-stage businesses in exchange for ownership shares or convertible debt. Angel investors can provide not only capital but also valuable industry expertise and connections.
  • Venture Capitalists: These are professional investors who invest in high-growth businesses in exchange for ownership shares. Venture capitalists typically invest in businesses that have a high potential for growth and are willing to take on significant risks in exchange for the potential for high returns.
  • Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs): This is a relatively new form of fundraising that allows businesses to raise capital by issuing digital tokens or coins. ICOs are typically used by businesses in the blockchain and cryptocurrency industries.


In conclusion, capital is a fundamental component of business and finance. It provides the resources necessary for businesses to establish and grow, and it plays a critical role in the overall health and stability of the global economy. By understanding the different types of capital and their importance, individuals and businesses can make informed decisions about their finances and investments. Whether seeking to establish a new business, expand an existing one, or simply manage risk, capital is an essential tool for achieving success in today’s economy.

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